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外文翻译--指令集成系统和协作机器人系统控制
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1、毕业设计(或论文)说明书共21页1附录2AnIntegratedSystemforCommandandControlofCooperativeRoboticSystemsChristopherM/Clark/EricW/Frew/HenryL/Jones/&StephenM/RockAerospaceRoboticsLabDepartmentofAeronautics&AstronauticsStanfordUniversitychrisc/ewf/hlj/rocksun-valley/stanford/eduAbstract/Presentedisanexperimentalinvestig

2、ationintothreeissuesthatenableincreasedautonomousfunctionalitywhenusingmobilerobots/Theseissuesare(1)interfacingasingleuserwithmultiplerobots/(2)motionplanningformultiplerobots/and(3)robottrajectorygenerationfortargettracking/Forthisresearch/theMicroAutonomousRoverS(MARS)testplatformwasdevelopedthat

3、providesameansforimplementingthistechnologyonlaboratoryrobotstocarryouttasksincludingcollision-freewhichasingleuserisabletocommandagroupofrobots/Experimentalresultsarepresentedinmotionandtargettracking/Keyword/multi-robotsroverMARStestplatformtargettrackingtrajectorymonitorMaintext/1/IntroductionCur

4、rently/remoteroboticsystemsrequiremanyhumanstooperateasinglerobot/Thegoalforfuturesystemsistorequireonlyoneoperatorformanyrobots/Forexample/futurespacestructureconstructionwouldbenefitfromtheavailabilityofalargegroupofrobotsthatcanbeoperatedbyaFigure1/RoversfromtheMARStestplatform/Smallgroupsofhuman

5、s/Whiletherehasbeenasignificantamountofresearchtowardstheoperationofsingleremoterobots/moreworkisstillrequiredtowardstheoperationofgroupsofrobots/Inparticular/anincreaseddegreeofautonomymustbegiventotherobots/Torealizethisautonomy/avarietyoffundamentalcapabilitiesmustbeenabledthatinclude/毕业设计(或论文)说明

6、书共21页2(1)Providinganinterfacefromwhichadequateinformationfordecision-makingisavailabletothehuman/andcommandstooneorseveraloftherobotscanbeexecuted/(2)Providingautonomous/real-timeconstructionofcollision-freetrajectoriesforallrobotsinthegroup/(3)Providingrobottrajectorygenerationthatenablestrackingof

7、movingobjects/Inpreviouswork/weaddressedeachoftheseissues/Jones6developedaninterfacethatallowsasinglehumantooperatemanyrobots;Clark2designedamulti-robotmotionplanner;andFrew4designedatrajectorygeneratorthatprovidesnear-optimalsolutionsforobjectmotionestimation/Figure1/RoversfromtheMARStestplantformI

8、nthispaper/wepresentanintegratedsystemdemonstrationofthesetechnologies/Thepaperisorganizedasfollows/Section2providesabriefdescriptionofeachofthethreeresearchprojects/InSection3/theMicroAutonomousRoverS(MARS)testplatformanditsapplicationtothisresearchisdescribed/Section4detailsafinaldemonstrationthat

9、summarizesthepreviousresearchasanintegratedsystem/ConclusionsarepresentedinSection5/2/TechnologicalIssues2/1/HumanInterfaceForasinglehumantooperateamulti-robotsystem/thehumanmusthaveaccesstoallrelevantinformationabouttheremoteenvironmentsothatappropriatecommandscanbeexecuted/Also/thehumanmustbeprovi

10、dedwithameansofexecutingthesecommandstooneorseveraloftherobots/In6/Jonesdevelopedaninterfacebasedondialoguesbetweenthehumanandtherobotsasaneffectivemethodforoperatingmultiplerobots/Inparticular/Jonesaddressedthefollowingissues/毕业设计(或论文)说明书共21页3-Establishingthestructureandscopeofthedialogue-Creatinga

11、robotinfrastructurecapableofconductinganeffectivedialogue-Determiningmethodsfordealingwiththesocialconventionsofdialogues-Developinganinterfacethatallowstheoperatortocarryoutthedialoguewiththeroboticsystem/Hisresultisanimplementationofadialogueinteractionpatternedafterthetask-orientedDialoguescommon

12、inhumanteams/Thehypothesisisthatsimilardialoguescanplayausefulrolewithinhuman-robotteams/TheinterfacewasimplementedusingOpenGLtoprovideathree-dimensionalviewoftherobotenvironment/Anexamplescreen-shotisshowninFigure2/Dialoguethroughtheinterfacetakesplaceelectronicallyratherthanthroughvoice/Thedialogu

13、ebeginswhenobjectsareselectedbyclickingonthemonthescreen/Theinterfacethenresolvestheidentityoftheobjectandtherobotthatsensedtheobject/Theinterfacewaitsuntilaresponsefromthecorrectrobothasbeenreturnedintheformofalistoftasksthattherobotcanaccomplishonthatobject/Thislististhendisplayedinadialogthatpops

14、upnexttotheobject/Theusercanselectfromthislistoftasks/andthecompletecommandofrobot/task/objectissenttotherobotforexecution/Figure2/Screenshotofthehuman-robotinterface/Thescreen-shotinFigure2providesanexampleoftheinterfaceinuse/Tworobots(denotedbywhitecylinders)and3objectsarelocatedonthetestbedworksp

15、ace/The毕业设计(或论文)说明书共21页4operatorhasqueriedtherobotagentstodeterminewhattaskscanbeperformedontheobjectattheleftsideofthescreen/Apop-upmenuhasappearedwithalistofthequeryresults/Jonesshowedthatitispossibletobuildadialogue-basedinteractionthatenablesthecontrolofmultiplerobots/Thisinteraction/asimplement

16、edinavirtualthree-dimensionalworld/providedanintuitivepoint-and-clickmethodfordeterminingthecapabilitiesoftherobotintheappropriatecontext/andenabledtheoperatortoparticipateintheresourcemanagementandtaskplanningfortherobots/2/2MotionPlanningWhenlargegroupsofrobotsandmovingobstaclesareworkingtogetherw

17、ithinadesignatedarea/high-levelmotionplanningisrequiredtoavoidcollisions/Continuouscommunicationbetweenallrobotsmaynotbefeasible/andnosystemofsensorscanprovideglobalknowledge/Also/tofunctioninadynamicenvironmentwithmovingobstacles/thesystemmustbeabletoreactquickly/Forthistypeofmulti-robotsystem/amot

18、ionplannerthatdoesnotneedglobalknowledgeorhighbandwidthcommunication/butthatcanstillplaninreal-time/isrequired/AmotionplanningsystemthatmeetsthisrequirementwasdevelopedbyClark2/ThealgorithmpresentedwasbasedontheplannerdevelopedbyHsuandKindel5/TheirworkdemonstratestheuseofaKinodynamicRandomizedMotion

19、Plannerforasinglerobotmaneuveringaroundstationaryandmovingobstacles/Tohandlemorethanonerobot/theKinodynamicRandomizedMotionPlannerwasextended/Intheextendedplanner/whenrobotsdetectoneanotherusinglocalsensors/theycommunicatewitheachOther/usingaprioritysystem/therobotscoordinatetheirmotionplanstoavoidc

20、ollisions/Eachrobotcreatesaplanwithknowledgeofonlythefewobstaclessurroundingit/Byplanningaroundonlythoseobjectswithintherobotslocalarea/themotionplanningproblemisgreatlysimplifiedleadingtodecreasedplanningtimes/Whennewobjectsentertherobotsfieldofview/are-planiscalledfortoensurethattherobotstrajectoryiscollision-free/Anexampleofasimulationinvolving10rovers/and5stationaryobstaclesisprovidedifFigure3/Smallercirclesrepresentthemicro-roversasviewedfromabove/whilecrosses

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