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外文翻译--不规则制造系统的***人模型
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附录1:翻译(英文)ModelingandspecifcationsofdynamicagentsinfractalmanufacturingsystemsKwangyeolRyua/YoungjunSonb/MooyoungJunga/*aDepartmentofIndustrialEngineering/PohangUniversityofScienceandTechnology/Pohang/SouthKoreaSystemsandIndustrialEngineeringDepartment/TheUniversityofArizona/Tucson/AZ/USAbReceived9September2002;accepted16April2003AbstractInordertorespondtoarapidlychangingmanufacturingenvironmentandmarket/manufacturingsystemsmustbeflexible/adaptable/andreusable/Thefractalmanufacturingsystem(FrMS)isoneofthenewmanufacturingparadigmsthataddresstheneedforthesecharacteristics/TheFrMSiscomprisedofanumberofbasiccomponents/eachofwhichconsistsoffivefunctionalmodules/(1)anobserver/(2)ananalyzer/(3)anorganizer/(4)aresolver/and(5)areporter/Eachofthesemodules/usingagenttechnology/autonomouslycooperatesandnegotiateswithotherswhileprocessingitsownjobs/Theresultingarchitecturehasahighdegreeofself-similarity/oneofthemaincharacteristicsofafractal/DespitethemanyconceptualadvantagesoftheFrMS/ithasnotbeensuccessfullyelaboratedandimplementedtodatebecauseofthedifficultiesinvolvedindoingso/Inthispaper/thestaticfunctionsanddynamicactivitiesofeachagentaremodeledusingtheunifiedmodelinglanguage(UML)/Then/relationshipsamongagents/workingmechanismsofeachagent/andseveralfractal-specificcharacteristics(selfsimilarity/self-organization/andgoal-orientation)aremodeledusingtheUML/Then/amethodfordealingwithseveraltypesofinformationsuchasproducts/orders/andresourcesintheFrMSispresented/Finally/apreliminaryprototypefortheFrMSusingAgletsTMispresented/#2003ElsevierB/V/Allrightsreserved/Keywords/Fractalmanufacturingsystem(FrMS);Agenttechnology;UML;ModelingAbbreviations/FrMS/fractalmanufacturingsystem;BFU/basicfractalunit;DRP/dynamicrestructuringprocess;UML/uni?edmodelinglanguage;HMS/holonicmanufacturingsystem;BMS/bionic/biologicalmanufacturingsystem;CNP/contractnetprotocol;MANPro/mobileagent-basednegotiationprocess;NMA/networkmonitoringagent;EMA/equipmentmonitoringagent;SEA/scheduleevaluationagent;DRA/dispatching-ruleratingagent;RSA/real-timesimulationagent;SGA/schedulegenerationagent;GFA/goalformationagent;TGA/taskgoverningagent;NEA/negotiationagent;KDA/knowledgedatabaseagent;DMA/decision-makingagent;FSM/fractalstatusmanager;FAM/fractaladdressmanager;REA/restructuringagent;NCA/networkcommandagent;ECA/equipmentcommandagent;STA/systemagent;NTA/networkagent;MP/materialprocessor;MH/materialhandler;MT/materialtransporter;BS/bufferstorage;MRP/materialremovalprocessor;MFP/materialformingprocessor;MIP/materialinspectionprocessor;PD/passivedevice;FMH/?xedmaterialhandler;MMH/movablematerialhandler;FMT/fixedmaterialtransporter;MMT/movablematerialtransporter;ABS/activebufferstorage;PBS/passivebufferstorageE-mailaddress/myjungpostech/ac/kr(M/Jung)/*Correspondingauthor/Tel//t82-54-279-2191;fax/t82-54-279-5998/0166-3615/$seefrontmatter#2003ElsevierB/V/Allrightsreserved/doi/10/1016/S0166-3615(03)00099-X1/IntroductionFacingintensifiedcompetitioninagrowingglobalmarket/manufacturingenterpriseshavebeenreengineeringtheirproductionsystemstoachievecomputerintegratedmanufacturing(CIM)/MajorgoalsofCIMinclude/butarenotnecessarilylimitedto/loweringmanufacturingcosts/rapidlyrespondingtochangingcustomerdemands/shorteningleadtimes/andincreasingthequalityofproducts13/However/thedevelopmentofaCIMsystemisanincrediblycomplexactivity/andtheevolutiontoCIMhasbeenslowerthanexpected4/5/Thiscanbedirectlyattributedtohighsoftwaredevelopmentandmaintenancecosts/Therefore/inordertoachieveacompetitiveadvantageintheturbulentglobalmarket/themanufacturingenterprisemustchangemanufacturingprocessesfromallanglesincludingordering/productdesign/processplanning/production/sales/etc/AsacontrolmodelforimplementingCIMsystems/hierarchicaldecompositionofshopflooractivitieshasbeencommonlyusedintheshopfloorcontrolsystem(SFCS)/thecentralpartofaCIMsystem2/Generally/acentraldatabaseprovidesaglobalviewoftheoverallsystem/andcontrollersgenerateschedulesandexecutethem/Hierarchicalcontroliseasytounderstandandislessredundantthanotherdistributedcontrolarchitecturessuchasheterarchicalcontrol/However/ithasacrucialweakpoint/whichisthatasmallchangeinonelevelmaysignificantlyandadverselyaffecttheotherlevelsinthehierarchy/Therefore/itisnormallysaidthathierarchicalcontrolofCIMsystemsismuchmoresuitableforproductioninasteadyenvironmentthaninadynamicallychangingenvironmentbecauseitissodiffculttoapplycontrolhierarchychangesimmediatelytotheequipment/Furthermore/itisdiffculttomeetdynamicallychangingcustomerrequirementsbecausethehierarchicalcontrolarchitectureisnotflexibleenoughtohandlethereconfigurationoftheshop/Therefore/themanufacturingsystemoftomorrowshouldbeflexible/highlyreconfigurable/andeasilyadaptabletothedynamicenvironment/Furthermore/itshouldbeanintelligent/autonomous/anddistributedsystemcomposedofindependentfunctionalmodules/Tocopewiththeserequirements/newmanufacturingparadigmssuchasabionic/biologicalmanufacturingsystem(BMS)6/7/aholonicmanufacturingsystem(HMS)8/9/andafractalmanufacturingsystem(FrMS)1013havebeenproposed/Tharumarajahetal/14provideacomprehensivecomparisonamongaBMS/aHMS/andanFrMSintermsofdesignandoperationalfeatures/AnFrMSisanewmanufacturingconceptderivedfromthefractalfactoryintroducedbyWarnecke13/Itisbasedontheconceptofautonomouslycooperatingmulti-agentsreferredtoasfractals/ThebasiccomponentoftheFrMS/referredtoasabasicfractalunit(BFU)/consistsoffivefunctionalmodulesincludinganobserver/ananalyzer/aresolver/anorganizer/andareporter10/11/ThefractalarchitecturalmodelrepresentsahierarchicalstructurebuiltfromtheelementsofaBFU/andthedesignofabasicunitincorporatesasetofpertinentattributesthatcanfullyrepresentanylevelinthehierarchy12/Inotherwords/thetermfractalcanrepresentanentiremanufacturingshopatthehighestleveloraphysicalmachineatthebottom-level/EachBFUprovidesservicesaccordingtoanindividual-levelgoalandactsindependentlywhileattemptingtoachievetheshoplevelgoal/AnFrMShasmanyadvantagesforadistributedanddynamicmanufacturingenvironment/Automaticreconfigurationofasystemthroughadynamicrestructuringprocess(DRP)isthemostdistinctivecharacteristicoftheFrMS/Inthispaper/thescopeofthereconfigurationdoesnotincludereconfigurablehardware15andexternallayoutdesign/Rather/itfocusesontheinteriorstructureofsoftwarecomponentsthatcanbereorganizedwithsoftwaremanipulations/Thereconfigurationorrestructuringinthispaperconsidersbothdynamicclusteringoftheagentsandconstruction/destruction/cloningofagents/whichaffectthenumberofagentsinthesystem/ThefunctionofafractalisnotspecificallydesignatedatthetimeofitsfirstinstallationintheFrMS/Thereconfigurationaddressedinthispaperalsoincludessituationswheretheagentsenrollmentsarechanged/meaningthattheagentsareassignedanewgoalandnewjobs/buttheircompositiondoesnotchange/Thispaperfocusesonformalmodelingofagentsandfractal-specificcharacteristicsthatwillprovideafoundationforthedevelopmentoftheFrMS/Becauseassociateddifficultieshave/todate/preventedafractal-basedsystemfrombeingembodied/itisnecessarytofirstexplicitlydefineaconcept/mechanisms/andcharacteristics/Theobjectiveofthispaper/therefore/istoclearlydefineandmodelfractal-specifccharacteristicsforamanufacturingsystemtohavesuchcharacteristics/Inordertodeveloptheagents/interandintra-fractalactivitiesarefirstclarified/Then/dynamicactivitiesforeachagentandrelationshipsbetweenagentsaremodeled/InordertomorefullydeveloptheFrMS/severalfractal-specificcharacteristicsarealsomodeled/Tosupportembodimentofmodeledcharacteristics/amethodfordealingwithinformationaboutproducts/orders/andresourcesintheFrMSisinvestigated/Throughthisresearch/mechanismsofagentsandcharacteristicsoftheFrMScanbedescribedwithsimplediagramsthatmakethesystemeasiertounderstand/TheworkcontainedinthispaperextendstheFrMSfrompreviouspapersbyemphasizinganddetailingitscharacteristics/Theactivitiesofagentsarespecifiedusingactivitymodelssothattheagentscanusetheactivitymodelstoforecasttheirnextactivitiesatrun-time/Therestofthispaperisorganizedasfollows/Section2describesfunctionsanddynamicactivitiesofagentsusingfunctionalandactivitymodelsofunifiedmodelinglanguage(UML)/InSection3/inter-andintra-fractalactivitiesarespecified/Severalfractal-specificcharacteristicsaredescribedusingUMLmodelsinSection4/Section5describesamethodfordealingwithinformationaboutproductsandresourcesintheFrMS/Section6concludesthepaper/2/Agent-basedfractalmanufacturingsystem(FrMS)2/1/BackgroundofanFrMSAnoverviewoftheFrMSisdepictedinFig/1/Everycontrollerateverylevelinthesystemhasaselfsimilarfunctionalstructurecomposedoffunctionalmodules/Inaddition/eachofthesemodules/regardlessofitshierarchicallevel/consistsofasetofagents/Aftertheinitialsetupofasystem/theconfigurationofthesystemmayneedtobereorganizedinresponsetounexpectedeventssuchasmachinebreakdown/Thesystemwillalsoneedtobereconfiguredwhenthesetofpartstobeproducedinthesystemchangesduetoachangeincustomerneeds/Inthesecases/fractalsintheFrMSautonomouslyanddynamicallychangetheirstructure/viatheactionsofagentsfortheappropriateworkingmechanismsofthefractals/Fig/1showstwofacilitylayoutsandthecorrespondingcompositionsoffractalsbeforeandaftertherestructuringprocess/Whenamachine(M)andarobot(R3)areaddedtothesystem/fractalsreorganizetheirinteriorconfigurationswiththemechanismofdynamicrestructuringprocessinawaythatthesystemcontinuestoworkwithgreatestefficiency/AfractalconsistsoffivefunctionalmodulesillustratedwiththeirrelationshipsinFig/2/Thefunctionsofeachmodulecanbedefineddependingupontheapplicationdomain/Fig/1/ReorganizationofthesystemusingadynamicrestructuringprocessintheFrMS/However/whenthetargetdomainisdetermined/themainfunctionsofeachmodulewillbeconsistentthroughoutthesystem/Forexample/thefunctionofaresolvermaybedifferentdependinguponwhetheritisdefinedforcontrollingamanufacturingsystemorformanagingsupplychains/However/themainfunctionofaresolverinamanufacturingsystemissimilartootherresolversinthatsystemregardlessoftheirlevelinthehierarchy/Abottom-levelfractalhassimilarfunctionstothoseofaconventionalequipmentcontrollerinaSFCS/Afractal/whichisdirectlyconnectedtoequipment(e/g/machine/robot/etc/)/receivessensorysignalsofequipmentandreturnsmessagesorcommands/Thefunctionofanobserveristomonitorthestateoftheunit/toreceivemessagesandinformationfromouterfractals/andto
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