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地理毕业论文汶川***滑坡遥感信息提取及灾害危险性评价研究
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1、汶川***滑坡遥感信息提取及灾害危险性评价研究【中文摘要】***滑坡是一种常见的***次生灾害/ 因其巨大的致灾力而广泛引起人们的关注。目前/ 单体滑坡的稳定性评价和滑坡预报研究已取得了较为深入的研究成果/ 但在向区域滑坡稳定性评价推广时会遇到许多困难。随着遥感和地理信息技术的发展/ 作为一种新的调查、监测途径和手段/ 在***滑坡领域已得到广泛运用。 2008 年 5 月 12 日/ 四川省汶川县发生 Ms 8/0 强震 / 直接导致数万人死亡 / 数十万人受伤 / 同时***诱发大量的滑坡、崩塌和泥石流等地质灾害 / 给当地人民带来了极大的影响。为了有效避免次生灾害对灾区造成进一步的危害 / 本文选

2、取重灾区汶川县作为研究区域 / 基于***滑坡原理/ 利用遥感与地理信息技术/ 综合各种数字滑坡技术获取滑坡信息/ 全面分析了研究区内滑坡与各影响因子间的相关性特征/ 运用信息量法与逻辑回归模型进行灾害危险性评价 / 并对两种方法进行了比较分析/ 主要研究内容如下/(1)基于遥感数据 / 论述了一系列数字图像处理技术( 影像融合、影像校正 )/ 研究获取影响滑坡灾害因素信息的方法/ 并对研究区***滑坡特征进行分析。(2) 按照指标体系所确定的指标因子进行数据采集 / 并按照统一的数字研究环境框架的规范进入 GIS 数据库 / 建立研究区域滑 / 更多坡空间数据库 / 包括滑坡分布数据库和滑坡因子

3、数据库 / 为研究区域地质灾害预警信息系统建设提供了丰富的滑坡灾害基础数据。 (3) 选取高程、坡度、坡向、岩性、***断裂、烈度以及水系因子 7 个评价因子 / 采用信息量法与逻辑回归模型进行滑坡灾害危险性评价 / 将研究区滑坡危险性划分为极轻度、轻度、中度、高度和极高危险五个级别 / 合理地反映区内滑坡灾害发育的总体特征。 (4) 将信息量模型与逻辑回归模型进行比较分析/ 发现逻辑回归法能较好地避免滑坡危险度区划研究中评价因子选择及权重赋值的主观性 / 具有更高的评价精度。在 GIS 支持下对研究区遥感影像进行解译和信息提取 / 获取其***滑坡特性 / 获得了汶川地区一些预测和危险性分析的结

4、果 / 对于该地区震后恢复重建、居民地选址、次生灾害的预警与防治等工作都有一些建设性的指导意义【英文摘要】 As a kind of secondary disaster caused by strong earthquake/ the earthquake-induced landslide has drawn much attention in the world due to the severe hazard/ Nowadays/ researches on single landslides have been carried out more successfully compar

5、ing to the ones on regional landslides/ To a certain degree/ remote sensing and GIS/ as new kinds of tools for investigation and monitor/ have been used in many researches on landslide susceptibility and hazard mapping/The Ms 8/0 Wenchuan earthquake/ occurred on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province/ made

6、 a great many houses collapsed and hundreds thousand people injured/ Meanwhile/ damage caused by earthquake-induced landslides/ collapse and debris flow became the major part of total losses/ In order to remove threat from the secondary disasters effectively/ thisstudy used information value method

7、and logistic regression/ coupled with techniques of remote sensing and GIS/ to generate susceptibility maps/ taking the case of Wenchuan County/ Main con/ 更多 tent and production can be summarized as follows/(1) Based on the remote sensing data/ this paper introduces the significance of digitalimage

8、processing technology (e/g/ data fusion and ortho-rectification)/ illustrates the procedures and techniques of information extraction and analyses the characteristics of earthquake-induced landslides in the research area/(2) To perform the potential analysis/ it was necessary to establish spatial da

9、tabase of landslides containing landslides attributes and variables contributing to landslide in the study area/ The database following the unified standard of digital surrounding can provide plenty of basic data for advanced process/(3) Seven factors controlling landslide occurrence have been taken

10、 account into the susceptibility assessment/ including elevation/ slop/ aspect/ lithology/ seismic intensity/ distance to faults and rivers/ According tothe probability that predicts the possibility of landslide occurrence calculated applying information value method and logistic regression separate

11、ly/ the study zone was ultimately categorized into five classes/ specifically/ “extremelylow”/ “low”/ “moderate”/ “high ”and“very high ”/ These results have been proved to reflect closely the spatial distributions of landslides in the study area/(4)It has been found that the predictive capability of

12、 logistic regression model appears to be more accurate comparing to information value method/ It is mostly because logistic regression could reduce effectively the subjectivity in selection of evaluation factors and weight assignment/In sum/ this paper extracts some information from remote sensing data/ analyses the characteristic of earthquake-induced landslides under aGIS environment and accordingly generates the susceptibility maps in W

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