收录时间:2022-11-25 21:38:44  浏览:0
How I Discovered Words(我是怎样识字的)The most important day I remember in all my life is the one on which my teacher/ Anne Mansfield Sullivan/ came to me/ I am filled with wonder when I consider the immeasurable contrast between the two lives which it N connects/ It was the third of March/ 1887/ three months before I was seven years old/ 在我记忆中,我一生最重要的日子是我的老师安妮曼斯菲尔德沙利文走进我生活的那一天。至今,每当我想起这一天仍会惊叹不已:是这一天把(我过的)截然不同的两种生活连在一起。在我记忆中/ 那是1887年3月3日,离我7岁生日还有三个月。2 On the afternoon of thateventfulday/ I stood on the porch/ dumb/expectant/ NI guessed vaguely from my mothers signs and from the hurryingto and froin the house that something unusual was about to happen/ so I went to the door and waited on the steps/The afternoon sunpenetratedthe mass of honeysuckle that covered the porch/ and fell on myupturnedface/My fingerslingeredalmostunconsciouslyon the familiar leaves andblossomswhich had just come forth to greet the sweet southern spring/I did not know what the future held of marvel or surprise for me/ NAnger and bitterness hadpreyeduponmecontinuallyfor weeks and a deeplanguorhad succeeded thispassionatestruggle/在那个重要日子的午后,我呆呆地站在我家的门廊上,内心充满了期盼。从我母亲给我的手势和屋子里众人来来往往的忙碌中我隐约猜到将有不同寻常的事发生,于是我来到门口,在台阶上等着。午后的阳光透过覆盖着门廊的忍冬花簇照射到我仰起的脸庞上。我的手指近乎下意识地抚弄着这些熟悉的叶片和花朵。它们刚刚抽叶开花,迎来南方温馨的春天。至于我的未来究竟会出现什么样的奇迹,我茫然不知。几个星期来,愤怒和怨恨一直折磨着我。这种激烈的感情争斗之后则是一种极度的疲惫。3 Have you ever been at sea in adensefog/ when it seemed as if a tangible white darknessshut you in/ and the great ship/ tense and anxious/ groped her way toward the shore withplummetand sounding-line N/ and you waited with beating heart for something to happen?I was like that ship before my education began/ only I was without compass or sounding-line/ and had no way of knowing how near the harbour was/Light! Give me light! was thewordlesscry of my soul/ and the light of love shone on me in that very hour/你可曾在航海时遇上过浓雾?那时,你仿佛被困在了触手可及的一片白茫茫中,不见天日。你乘坐的***,靠测深锤和测深线的指引,举步维艰地靠向海岸,既紧张又焦急不安;而你则心里怦怦直跳,等着什么事情发生。我在接受教育之前正像那艘***,所不同的是我连指南针或测深线都没有,更无从知晓离港湾还有多远。我的心灵在无声地疾呼:“光明!给我光明吧!”而就在那个时刻,爱的光芒洒在了我的身上。4 I felt approachingfootsteps/I stretched out my hand as I supposed to my mother/ NSomeone took it/ and I was caught up and held close in the arms of her who had come to reveal all things to me/ and/ more than all things else/ to love me/我感觉到有脚步由远及近。于是我伸出了手,以为会是母亲。有人抓住了我的手,将我抱住并紧紧地搂在了怀里。正是这个人的到来,把整个世界展示给我,最重要的是给我带来了爱。5 The morning after my teacher came she led me into her room and gave me adoll/The little blind children at the Perkins Institution had sent it and Laura Bridgman had dressed it/ but I did not know this untilafterward/When I had played with it a little while/ Miss Sullivan slowly spelled into my hand the word d-o-l-l/I was at once interested in this finger play and tried to imitate it/When I finally succeeded in making the letters correctly I wasflushedwithchildishpleasure and pride/Running downstairs to my mother I held up my hand and made the letters for doll/I did not know that I was spelling a word or even that words existed/ I was simply making my fingers go in monkey-likeimitation/In the days that followed I learned to spell in thisuncomprehendingway a great many words/among them/pin/hat/cupand a few verbs likesit/standandwalk/But my teacher had been with me several weeks before I understood that everything has a name/在老师来到我家的第二天上午,她把我带到她的房间,给了我一个玩具娃娃。这娃娃是帕金斯学校的小盲童们送给我的礼物,劳拉布里奇曼给娃娃穿上了衣服,不过这些是我在后来才知道的。我玩了一小会儿之后,沙利文小姐慢慢地在我的手上拼出了“d-o-l-l”(***娃娃)这个词。我一下子便对这种手指游戏产生了兴趣,而且试着模仿它。当我终于正确地拼出了这几个字母时,内心充满了孩子气的喜悦和自豪。我跑到楼下找到母亲,伸手拼出了“***娃娃”所含的字母。当时我并不知道我是在拼一个单词,甚至还不知道有“单词”这么回事;我只是像猴子那样用手指进行模仿。在接下来的几天里,我就这样,虽然并不知词识义,却学会了拼写好些单词。这些词中有“别针”、“帽子”、“杯子”,还有些动词,如“坐”、“站”和“走”。 但是等我懂得每样东西都有名字时,已经是我和老师在一起好几个星期之后的事了。6 One day/ while I was playing with my new doll/ Miss Sullivan put my bigragdoll into my lap/ also spelled d-o-l-l and tried to make me understand that d-o-l-lappliedto both/Earlier in the day we had had atussleover the words m-u-g and w-a-t-e-r/Miss Sullivan had tried to impress it upon me that m-u-g is mug and that w-a-t-e-r is water/ but I persisted inconfoundingthe two/In despair she had dropped the subject Nfor the time/ only to Nrenewitat the first opportunity/I became impatient at her repeated attempts and/ seizing the new doll/ Idashedit upon the floor/I waskeenlydelighted when I felt thefragmentsof the broken doll at my feet/Neithersorrownor regret followed my passionateoutburst/I had not loved the doll/In the still/ dark world in which I lived there was no strong sentiment ortenderness/I felt my teacher sweep the fragments to one side of thehearth/ and I had a sense of satisfaction that the cause of my discomfort was removed/She brought me my hat/ and I knew I was going out into the warm sunshine/This thought/ if a wordlesssensationmay be called a thought/ made me hop andskipwith pleasure/一天,我正在玩我的新玩具娃娃,这时,沙利文小姐把我的大布娃娃放在我的膝上,又给我拼了一遍“d-o-l-l”,想让我懂得“d-o-l-l”这个单词适用于这两件东西。就在当天早些时候,我曾和她因“m-u-g”和“w-a-t-e-r”这两个词发生过争执。沙利文小姐想让我记住“m-u-g”是“大杯”,而“w-a-t-e-r”是“水”,但我却总是把这两个词的意思给弄混。失望之余她暂时搁起这一话题,但一有机会她就马上旧事重提。我却对她一遍又一遍的努力感到忍无可忍,于是就抓起新的玩具娃娃,狠狠地砸在了地板上。当我感觉到脚边摔碎的玩具娃娃时,产生了一种强烈的***。在这种强烈的情感发泄之后,我没有一丝伤感或懊悔之情。我从没有喜欢过那个玩具娃娃。在我所生活的那个无声、黑暗的世界里是没有柔情或情感的。我感觉到老师已把碎片扫到了壁炉炉***的一边,此时我有一种满足感,因为让我不快的东西已不复存在了。她给我拿来了草帽,我知道我将要走出屋子,到温暖的阳光下。一想到这(如果一种无法用言语表达的感觉也可以称为想法的话),我便高兴得又蹦又跳。7 We walked down the path to the well-house/ attracted by thefragranceof thehoneysucklewith which it was covered/Some one was drawing water and my teacher placed my hand under thespout/As the cool streamgushedover one hand she spelled into the other the word water/ first slowly/ then rapidly/I stood still/ my whole attention fixed upon the motions of her fingers/Suddenly/ I felt amistyconsciousnessas of something forgottenathrillof returning thought/and somehow the mystery of language was revealed to me/I knew then that w-a-t-e-r meant the wonderful cool something that was flowing over my hand/That living word awakened my soul/ gave it light/ hope/ joy/ set it free!There werebarriersstill/ it is true/ but barriers that couldin time Nbeswept away/我们沿着小路来到了井房,井房上布满了忍冬,它的芳香深深地吸引了我们。有人正在抽水,老师把我的一只手放到了喷水口下方。凉爽的水流过我的一只手,这时她在我的另一只手上拼写了“水”这个词。开始她拼得很慢,接着拼得很快。我站在那儿一动不动,所有的注意力都集中在她手指的移动上。刹那间,我朦胧地意识到了些什么,仿佛记起了被久久遗忘的什么东西那是一种恢复思维的激动。不知怎的,语言的奥秘一下子展现在我的面前。这时我明白了“w-a-t-e-r”指的就是从我手上流过的那美妙无比的凉爽的东西。这活生生的字眼唤醒了我沉睡的灵魂,赋予了它光明、希望和喜悦,使它获得了***!诚然,障碍依然存在,但那是一些假以时日终究会被消除的障碍。8 I left the well-house eager to learn/Everything had a name/ and each namegave birth toa new thought/As we returned to the house every object which I touched seemed toquiverwith life/That was because I saw everything with the strange/ new sight that had come to me/On entering the door I remembered the doll I had broken/ NI felt my way to the hearth and picked up the pieces/ I triedvainlyto put them together/Then my eyes filled with tears/ for I realized what I had done/ and for the first time I feltrepentanceand sorrow/我离开井房,心中充满了求知的欲望。万物皆有名,而每个名字又引申出一种新的概念。在我们回家的路上,我感到我触摸到的每件东西似乎都有生机。那是因为我在用刚刚赋予我的新奇的眼光看待每样东西。进门时我记起了那个被我摔破的娃娃。我摸索着来到了炉***边,捡起那些碎片,试着把它们拼接在一起,但却徒劳无益。这时我的眼里满是泪水,因为我意识到了自己先前干了些什么,而且有生以来第一次感到了悔恨和难过。9 I learned a great many new words that day/I do not remember what they all were/ but I do know thatmother/father/sister/teacherwere among themwords that were to make the world blossom for me/ like Aaronsrod N/ with flowers/It would have been difficult to find a happier child than I was as I lay in my crib atthe close ofthat eventful day andlived overthe joys it had brought me/ and for the first timelonged fora new day to come/( 1/046 words)那天我学会了很多新词。现在我已记不清都是些什么词了,但我还记得其中有“妈妈、爸爸、姐妹、老师”。这些词使得整个世界在我面前绽放,“有如亚伦的神杖,开满了鲜花”。 在这个重要的日子快要结束时,已很难找到一个比我更加幸福的孩子了。我躺在自己的小***上,回味着这一天所给予我的欣喜,渴望着新的一天的到来。这是我有生以来从未有过的期盼。Aggression in Humans and Animals(人和动物的好斗性)Man must be the mostaggressiveand cruel of all living creatures/We may say aviolentman is behaving like a beast/ but/ in fact/ no beast behaves asviolentlyas man/When aterritorialanimal Nor birdintrudeson the territory of another creature of the same species/ the latter will only perform some hostile gestures towarn offthe intruder/Nevertheless/ should a fight follow/ neither creature will be badly hurt/ for the loser will save himself by making a gesture ofsubmission/ NNormally one animal will only kill another for food/ and rarely does an animal kill a member of its own species/人类肯定是所有动物中最好斗和最残忍的。我们会说暴徒的行为“像野兽”,然而事实上,没有任何一种动物像人类那样残暴。当地盘性的动物或鸟类侵入别的同类动物的领地时,后者只会做一些表示敌意的姿态以吓跑入侵者。而且,万一有争斗,任何一方都不会受重伤,因为败方只要做出姿态表示投降便可保全性命。一般情况下,动物之间只会为了争食而杀戮,同类动物之间自相残杀是极少见的。2 If/ however/ an animal finds itself inabnormalconditions/ it may show abnormalaggressiveness/A tiger that once came out of the jungle into a village and attacked a man was later found to have an injuredpawthat hadevidentlyprevented it from hunting its usual prey/If it had not had this disability it would haveundoubtedlystayed in the jungle and hunted for food in the customary way/ NAnimals in zoos are kept in cages and often become more aggressive than they would be in the wild/ NIf the caged lion/ for example/ were free to wander on thegrassyplains of Africa/ it would be continually active/ ranging over long distances/ hunting in family groups/ NIn the zoo it is probably better fed andcared for/ but it is evidentlyboredand frustrated for lack of company N/然而,如果动物发现自己处于异常环境下,它会表现出不同寻常的攻击性。有一只老虎从丛林跑到村庄来,袭击了人。后来人们发现原来它的爪子受了伤,使它显然不能像平时那样去猎食。如果不是受了伤,这只虎毫无疑问还会呆在丛林里,并像往常那样去猎取食物。关在动物园笼子里的动物,往往会比在野外时更加好斗。比如说,关在笼子里的狮子一旦能***自在地徜徉在非洲的大草原上,那么它会一直活力充沛,长途跋涉,与家族同类一起追捕食物。在动物园里,也许它吃得更好,能得到精心的照料,但是,由于离群索居,它显然会感到倦怠,情绪沮丧。3 Somezoologistsand psychologists compare modern man to Na caged lion/Living conditions incrowdedcities/ they say/ are similar to those of animals in a zoo and make theinhabitantsunusually aggressive/If the human population had not increased so rapidly/ people would have had more space and freedom/ NInprehistorictimes a group of about 60 people had many kilometres of empty land to wander and search for food in/If conditions had remained thus/ man might have been no more aggressive than his fellow creatures/As it is/ it is possible for as many as 30/000 people to be working in a single office-building/It is not surprising if in these conditions people behaveaggressivelytowards each other/In fact/ it is almost impossible for them to behave otherwise N/Man must have become more aggressive over the years as the world population has increased/一些动物学家和心理学家把现代人比喻成笼子里的狮子。他们认为,人们生活在拥挤不堪的城市里,生活条件与动物园里的动物很相似,这种状况使得这些居民特别地好斗。如果人口增长速度不是这样快,人们就会有更多的空间和***。在史前时代,60人左右的群体会有数公里的空间来活动和觅食。假如现在还有这样的条件,人类就不会比其他动物更加好斗。实际情况是,在同一栋办公大楼里工作的人,有可能多达3万人。在这种条件下,人们之间变得寻衅好斗也就不足为奇了。实际上,要他们不这样几乎是不可能的。这些年来,随着世界人口的增长,人类肯定是更加好斗了。4 However/ aggressionin itself Nis not necessarily a bad thing/Some psychologists believe that aggression is a basic humaninstinctthat must be satisfied/Ifconstructive Nmeans are not available to satisfy this instinct/ man willturn todestructive means/The impulse toasserthimself has enabled him to survive in a dangerous world/ but/ ironically/ he is now likely to destroy his own species unless alternative/ non-violent ways of expressing aggression can be found/In fact/ it is growing more and more difficult for people to assert themselves as individuals/ as towns/ nations and organizations become steadily bigger/ with authority increasinglycentralizedandremote/ NA man who may once have been a self-employedcraftsman/ master of his own trade/ might now have a boring job in a factory/A small firm that once worked as a team to produce high-quality goods is likely to be absorbed into a vast organization where their work ismechanicaland there is no possibility for personal expression/Unable in these conditions to channel Ntheir aggression into creative work/ people will probably express it through resentment and anger/At the international level anaccumulationof hostile emotions finallyfinds expression inlarge-scaleimpersonalwarfare/A man who would hesitate to hit another person in front of his eyes may kill thousands of people by dropping a bomb from a plane/to him they are too remote to be human beings/ but are merely figures on a chart of his routine job/然而,好斗本身并不一定是坏事。一些心理学家认为好斗是一种必须得到满足的基本的人类本能。如果没有建设性的手段来满足这一本能,人类就会采用破坏性的手段。人类要坚持自己的权利和主张的冲动使其能够在这充满危险的世界上生存下来;然而,具有讽刺意义的是,人类有可能自我毁灭,除非能找到其他非***的、能发泄其好斗本性的办法。实际上,人类作为个体要想坚持自己的权利和主张已经越来越困难了,因为城镇、国家以及组织机构变得越来越庞大,而权力则变得越发集中,越发遥远了。一个人也许曾经是个体手工业者,而且还是本行业的能工巧匠,而现在却可能在工厂里干着单调乏味的工作。一家小公司曾经团结合作生产出高质量产品,而现在可能被并入了一家大机构,员工的工作很机械,也没有自我发挥的机会了。在这样的条件下,人们无法将自己争强好斗的特性发挥在创造性的工作上,很可能就表现出怨恨、愤怒等情绪。在国与国之间,敌对情绪的日积月累最终会以大规模的没有人性的战争形式爆发出来。一个不大愿意对他面前的人拔拳相向的人,也许会从飞机上投下一枚***导致成千上万的人死亡;对于他来说,那些人太遥远,已不算是人了,仅仅是他日常工作报表上的数字而已。5 Nevertheless/ it might be possible at least to improve the situation/The encouragement of competition in all possible fields should tend to diminish thelikelihoodof war rather than increase it/In his bookHuman Aggression/ Anthony Storr suggested that the United Nations Nshould organize international competitions in sports and also for the best designed house or hospital/ or the safest car/Even the enormous amount of money and energy devoted to the space race Nis/ he says/ to be welcomed/ for this kind of competition can be regarded as similar to the ritual conflicts of animals/Only if hostility and aggression can be expressed in constructive activity and non-violent competition/ will the human race be able to survive/ N( 761 words)然而,这种状况至少还是能够得到改善的。鼓励所有可能领域中的竞争,应该会逐渐减少而不是增加战争的可能性。安东尼斯托尔在他的人类的好斗性一书中,建议联合国组织国际性体育比赛,还可以开展诸如最佳房屋或医院设计、最安全汽车竞赛等活动。他说,甚至那些把大量的财力和人力用于太空竞赛的做法,也是值得欢迎的,因为这种竞争与动物之间惯常的冲突类似。只有将人类的敌意和好斗通过建设性活动和非***的竞争方式发挥出来,人类才能继续生存下去。Transformative Travel(新生之旅)Twenty-five years ago I felt like awreck/Although I was just 23/ my life already seemed over/The future appeared as much like awastelandas theemptinessI could see while looking back to the past/I felt lost/ without choices/ without hope/25年前我感觉自己成了废物。尽管那时我只有23岁,但我的生活似乎到了尽头。我的未来看起来好似荒漠,就像回顾过去时,看到的是一片空虚。我感到迷茫,毫无选择余地,毫无希望可言。2 I was stuck in a job I hated and trapped in anengagementwith a woman I didnt love/At the time/ bothcommitmentsseemed like a good idea/ but I suppose it was thefantasyof being a successful/ marriedbusinessmanthatappealed tome far more than the reality/ N我当时被困在两件事中:做着一份我憎恨的工作并与一个我并不爱的女人订有婚约。当初,两个承诺都好像是不错的主意,但是我想吸引我的只是成为一个成功的已婚商人的幻想,而远非现实。3 I decided to take a class just for the entertainment value/It happened to be anintroductorycounselingcourse/ one that involved personal sharing in the group/ NWe were challenged to make commitmentspubliclyabout things we would like to change in our lives/and in a moment of pureimpulsiveness/ I declared that by the next class meeting I was going to quit my job and end my engagement/我决定进修一门课程,仅仅为了好玩而已。这刚好是一门咨询入门课程,需要个人参与到集体中去。(这门课程)要求我们对生活中要进行的变动做出公开承诺。出于一时冲动,我宣布在下次上课之前,我会辞去工作并解除婚约。4 A few days later I found myself Nunemployedandunattached/ excited by the freedom/ yet terrified about what to do next/ NI needed some kind oftransitionfrom my old life to a new one/ a sort of ritual Nthat would help me totransformmyself from one person into another/So I did something just as impulsive as my previous actions/ I booked a trip for a week in Aruba N/几天后,我失业了,也解除了婚约,为获得的***而兴奋,但又因为不知道下一步做什么而惶恐。我需要某种从旧生活到新生活的转变,一种有助于我从一种人转型为另一种人的(必不可少的)程序。于是我做了一件与我前面的行为同样冲动的事情:我预定了到阿鲁巴岛为期一周的旅行。5 In spite ofwhat others might have thought/ I was not running away from something but to somethingN/I wanted a clean break N/ and I knew I needed toget away frommy usual environment and influences so as to think clearly about where I was headed/不管别人会有什么样的想法,但是我并不是在逃避现实,而是在追求未来。我想有一个彻底的决裂,而且我知道我需要离开自己熟悉的环境,摆脱原来的影响,以便考虑清楚自己将何去何从。6 Once settled into my room on the little island of Aruba/ I began my process of self-change/I really could have been anywhere as long as nobody could reach me by phone and I had the peace and quiet to think about what I wanted to do/I spent the mornings going for long walks on the beach/ the afternoons sitting under my favorite tree/ reading books and listening to tapes/ NProbably most important of all N/ I forced myself to get out of my room and go to meet people/Ordinarilyshy/ I now decided that I was someone who was perfectly capable of having a conversation with anyone I chose/Since nobody knew the real me/ the way I had always been/ I felt free to be completely different/在阿鲁巴小岛上的房间里一安顿下来,我就开始了自我改变的进程。其实只要没人能打电话找到我,让我能平静安宁地思考我想做的事,我到哪里去都可以。上午我在海滩上长时间地散步,下午则坐在我喜爱的树下看书、听录音磁带。最重要的也许是我强迫自己走出房间去与别人交往。平常我很腼腆,但这时我确信自己是一个完全能和任何人交谈的人。因为没人了解“真实的”我,知道我过去的样子,所以,我感到自己可以***自在,一改常态。7 It took me almost a year to pay off Nthat trip/ but I am convinced that my single week in Aruba was worth three years in therapy N/That trip started a number of processes that helped me to transform myself/This is how I did it/我用了将近一年的时间才付清那趟旅行的费用,但是我相信在阿鲁巴岛上仅仅一周的效果就相当于三年的治疗。那次旅行启动了一系列有助于自我转变的过程。以下是我具体的做法:8 I created amindsetthat made me ready for change/I expected that big things were on the horizon/ that a trip such as this could change my life/I believedwith all my heartthat I could change/ if only I could find a quiet place to sort things out andexperiment withnew ways of thinking and acting/我让自己在精神状态上做好了转变的准备。我期待重大的事情将会来临,期待这样的旅行会改变我的生活。我真心实意地相信我会转变,只要我能找一个安静的地方来理清头绪,来尝试新的思维和行事方法。9 Iinsulatedmyself from the usual influences in my life and the people whose approval was most important/One of the reasons that therapy often takes so long is that/ once you leave the safety and support of asession N/ youreenterthe world where familiar peopleelicitthe familiar reactions/By separating myself from others approval and influences/ I was able to think more clearly about what I really
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