2018年高考英语二轮复习 增分篇 专题巧突破 专题三 阅读理解 专题限时检测阅读理解主旨大意类之全文大意题或段落大意题
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专题限时检测(二十)阅读理解主旨大意类之全文大意题或段落大意题(加的为全文大意题或段落大意题,本卷限时24分钟)A(2017镇江市高三模拟考试)The habitforming process within our brains is a threestep loop (回路)/ First/ there is a cue/ a trigger that tells your brain to go into automatic mode (模式) and which habit to use/ Then there is the routine/ which can be physical or mental or emotional/ Finally/ there is a reward/ which helps your brain figure out if this particular loop is worth remembering for the future/ Over time/ this loop cues/ routines/ rewards becomes more and more automatic/ The cue and reward become intertwined (交织) until a powerful sense of anticipation and a desire appear/ Eventually/ a habit is born/Habits arent destiny/ Habits can be ignored/ changed/ or replaced/ But the reason the discovery of the habit loop is so important is that it reveals a basic truth/ When a habit appears/ the brain stops fully participating in decisionmaking/ It stops working so hard/ or shifts focus to other tasks/ So unless you deliberately fight a habit unless you find new routines the pattern will unfold automatically/ Habits never really disappear/ Theyre encoded (把编码) into the structures of our brain/ and thats a huge advantage for us/ because it would be awful if we had to relearn how to drive after every vacation/ The problem is that your brain cant tell the difference between bad and good habits/ and so if you have a bad one/ its always lurking (蛰伏) there/ waiting for the right cues and rewards/This explains why its so hard to create exercise habits/ for instance/ or change what we eat/ Once we develop a routine of sitting on the sofa/ rather than running/ or snacking whenever we pass a doughnut box/ those patterns always remain inside our heads/ By the same rule/ though/ if we learn to create new neurological (神经系统的) routines that overpower those behaviors if we take control of the habit loop we can force those bad tendencies into the background/ And once someone creates a new pattern/ studies have demonstrated/ going for a jog or ignoring the doughnuts becomes as automatic as any other habit/Of course/ those decisions are habitual/ effortless/ As long as your basal ganglia (基底核) is complete and the cues remain constant/ the behaviors will occur unthinkingly/ At the same time/ however/ the brains dependence on automatic routines can be dangerous/ Habits are often as much a curse as a benefit/1What can we learn about the habit loop from the first two paragraphs?AIt helps your brain understand what is worth remembering/BIt is a threestep loop consisting of a cue/ a routine and a reward/CIt becomes automatic and develops a sense of anticipation and desire/DIt reveals a basic truth that the pattern of a habit will unfold automatically/解析:选B细节理解题。根据前两段的内容,尤其是第一段中的“The habitforming process within our brains is a threestep loop(回路)First,there is a cue / Then there is the routine / Finally/ there is a reward”可知,习惯形成的过程是一个三步走的回路,分别是:提示、惯例和奖励。故选B项。2The advantage of habits never really disappearing is that _/Awe can easily change what we eatBwe develop a routine of sitting on the sofaCwe dont necessarily learn a skill againDwe can distinguish between bad and good habits解析:选C细节理解题。根据第三段前两句可知,从未真正消失的习惯会被编入我们的大脑结构中,正是得益于此,我们不必重新学习一门技能。故选C项。3What can be inferred from the last sentence in Paragraph 4?AHabits can be changed and replaced/BHabits cannot be ignored or created/COld patterns always exist in our brain/DNew patterns seldom remain in our heads/解析:选A推理判断题。根据第四段最后一句可知,研究表明,一旦有人创造了新的模式,慢跑或忽视甜甜圈就变得和任何其他的习惯一样自动化了。由此可推断,习惯可以被改变或替代。故选A项。4/What does the passage mainly talk about?AThe discovery of the habit loop/BThe automatic pattern of habits/CThe research on the habitforming process/DThe brains dependence on automatic routines/解析:选B全文大意题。本文主要介绍的是习惯的形成是一个自动化的过程,一旦人们创造了新的习惯回路模式,习惯就可能被忽略、改变或替换。故B项最能概括文章大意。B(2017苏北四市高三期末联考)In creating AJ/Fikrys ordinaryyetextraordinary life/ the author Gabrielle Zevin has thrown every clich (老生常谈) into the mix/ The hero/ AJ/Fikry/ lost his beloved wife Nic in a road accident/ The sales of his bookstore have been decreasing/ The enthusiastic new sales representative Amelia wont stop annoying him with new books/ His rare and very valuable first edition has gone missing/ But the unexpected arrival of Maya left in his care brings about a series of events with love and hope to his life/There are few real surprises in the plot and attentive readers will be able to tell where the story is headed/ But that is not the point/ the elichs and the predictable plot take nothing away from Zevins work The Storied Life of A/ JFikry because its how she tells the story that first charms the readers/ then holds their attention/ making them read the whole book in a single sitting and finally give the book a long hug when they are finished/ This book is a love letter to the joys of reading/ Each chapter begins with the title of a short story or a book and a note from AJ/Fikry describing what he likes about it/ essentially introducing each character by what they read/ The characters are so realistic that its hard not to fall in love with all of them/ Maya/ “the fantastic bookworm”, Amelia/ “the giantess” with questionable taste in fashion/ Lambiase/ the adorable police chief/ and AJ/Fikry/ the reluctant hero who hates electronic reading devices that will “send centuries of a lively culture into what will surely be a rapid decline”The passage of time race issues and the bureaucratic argument of childrens services are all put aside in the telling of this story/ not because theres anything to hide or because reality is not allowed to interfere/ but because the author chooses to focus on the important stuff/ For example/ it focuses on Lambiase who organizes a reading club for policemen at the bookstore/ His original intention is to help promote business/ but over the years he becomes a genuine booklover/ one who tends to always have simple advice for his cynical (愤世嫉俗的) friend/ AJ/Fikry/ “Bad timing,” Lambiase claims/ “Ive been a police officer for twenty years now and Ill tell you pretty much every bad thing in life is a result of bad timing/ and every good thing is the result of good timing/”More than anything else/ this novel is not only about the selling of them or the reading of them/ but how books and stories become part of our lives/ how we find ourselves within what we read and how we carry books with us/ It is also about the power of unexpected happiness and always believing that something wonderful is just around the corner/ The Late Bloomer is the book within a book which brings together AJ/Fikry and Amelia/ It reminds them that life doesnt follow a set script/ things happen when they are meant to happen/ and there is no such thing as “too late” for anything/ Life is the big picture/ Always look at the big picture/ Enjoy it/ Dont get too concentrated on the details/ because it will all be over before you know it/ In the long run nobody/ not even you/ will remember the ordinary details because they are/ in the end/ quite irrelevant/AJ/Fikrys final words of wisdom to teenaged Maya convey the same feelings in literary terms/ “We are not quite novels/ We are not quite short stories/ In the end/ we_are_collected_works/ We have read enough to know there are no collections where each story is perfect/ Some of us hit/ Some miss/”语篇解读:本文是一篇说明文,主要是有关Gabrielle Zevin的作品The Storied Life of A/J/Fikry的评论。5The authors attitude towards Zevins book is _/AsupportiveBcriticalCobjective Dindifferent解析:选A推理判断题。通读全文,尤其是第二段至第四段的内容可知,作者认为这本书蕴含着丰富的人生哲理,且对读者极具吸引力,故作者对这本书的态度是支持的。6How many characters of the novel are mentioned in the passage?AFour/ BFive/CSix/ DSeven/解析:选B细节理解题。文章第一段提到了A/J/Fikry/ Nic/ Amelia和Maya这四个人物;第三段中提到Lambiase这个人物。所以本文一共提到小说中的五个人物。故选B。7The police chief organizing a reading club is mentioned to prove _ in the novel/Athere is really nothing to hideBreality is not allowed to interfereCimportant stuff has been focused onDeverything is a result of timing解析:选C推理判断题。根据第四段中的前两句话可知,作者举***局长的例子是为了说明本段第一句话中的“focus on the important stuff”,即这本小说集中于重要的东西。故选C。8What can be implied in Paragraph 5 ?AThe novel underlines happiness will always be around/BThe novel mainly talks about the marketing of the book/CIt is The Late Bloomer that brings AJ/Fikry and Amelia together/DIt is important to do things on the basis of overall situations/解析:选D推理判断题。根据第五段的后半段“Life is the big picture / quite irrelevant/”可知,不必关注人生的细节,而应该看得长远,关注大局。故选D。9The underlined sentence in the last paragraph most probably means _/Aour life is full of ups and downsBwe should collect works all our lifeCour life is closely connected with booksDwe should read books all our life解析:选A句意理解题。我们既不是长篇小说,也不是短篇小说,最终我们都是小说集。我们读过足够多的书,因此知道没有每个故事都完美的小说集。故画线句用来比喻人生充满起起落落,没有谁的人生是完美的。故选A。10/The passage is mainly about _/Athe extraordinary life of AJ/FikryBthe moral lesson of no “too late” in lifeCa comment on The Late BloomerDa review of The Storied Life of AJ/Fikry解析:选D全文大意题。通读全文可知,本文主要是有关Gabrielle Zevin的作品The Storied Life of AJ/Fikry的评论。故选D。C(2017徐州市高三考前信息卷)The splendid aurora light displays that appear in Earths atmosphere around the north and south magnetic (磁的) poles were once mysterious phenomena/ Now/ scientists have data from satellites and groundbased observations from which we know that the aurora brilliance is a massive electrical discharge similar to that occurring in a neon sign/ To understand the cause of auroras/ first picture the Earth enclosed by its magnetosphere (磁层)/ a huge region created by the Earths magnetic field/ Outside the magnetosphere/ rushing toward the earth is the solar wind/ a speedily moving body of ionized (离子化的) gases with its own magnetic field/ Charged particles (粒子) in this solar wind speed earthward along the solar winds magnetic lines of force/ The Earths magnetosphere is a barrier to the solar winds/ and forces the charged particles of the solar wind to flow around the magnetosphere itself/ But in the polar regions/ the magnetic lines of force of the Earth and of the solar wind gather together/ Here many of the solar winds charged particles break through the magnetosphere and enter Earths magnetic field/ They then rush back and forth between the Earths magnetic poles very rapidly and ionize and excite the atoms of the upper atmosphere of the Earth/ causing them to produce aurora radiations of visible light/ The colors of an aurora depend on the atoms producing them/ The leading greenish white light comes from low energy excitation of oxygen atoms/ During huge magnetic storms oxygen atoms also undergo high energy excitation and produce pink light/ Excited nitrogen (氮) atoms contribute bands of color varying from blue to violet/ Viewed from outer space/ auroras can be seen as dimly shining belts wrapped around each of the Earths magnetic poles/ Each aurora hangs like a curtain of light stretching over the polar regions and into the higher latitudes/ When the solar flares (闪光) that result in magnetic storms and au
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